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WASHINGTON--After decades of politically useful fiscal mismanagement, many states and localities have become little more than underfunded pension systems with a few public services attached. At last count, they owed more than
A number of states--23 at last count--have turned to gambling
For a public policy innovation this large, the casino/government complex has received little scrutiny, which a new report by the Institute for American Values, "Why Casinos Matter," seeks to remedy. It is a crash course in the political and social hazards of funding public purposes through the exploitation of human weakness.
Modern gaming is different from the traditional image of destination resorts with swimming pools and showgirls. Casinos are geographically distributed--often purposely located in communities desperate for development. They depend on commuters instead of vacationers--people who come in a few times a month, or a few times a week. Their target market is the middle and working class.
And the technology of gambling has been fine-tuned to encourage addiction. Slot machines--the main source of revenue--are sophisticated computers designed to elicit Pavlovian responses. Players are fed a diet of small wins on the way to larger losses. They are encouraged to enter the "zone," to have a smooth, gradual "ride," until their money is exhausted, known as "playing to extinction." In this case, compulsive behavior is not the unfortunate side effect of a game of chance. It is the intended result of a software program.
State governments, which have often been improvident in their own finances, have turned to the active encouragement of improvidence in citizens as a source of revenue. In for a pound, I guess. But it is even more disturbing than this. "Why Casinos Matter" points to studies indicating that 40 percent to 60 percent of slot-machine revenues come from problem gamblers.
Would the government exploit any other disability in this manner? Would it raise revenue from brothels catering to sex addicts? Open crack houses to profit from drug addiction?